Referensi Pilihan Alergi Makanan Pada Anak

Reaksi makanan yang merugikan adalah istilah umum untuk setiap respons yang tidak diinginkan terhadap konsumsi makanan. Reaksi makanan yang merugikan dapat dibagi menjadi alergi makanan, yang dimediasi secara imunologis, dan semua reaksi lainnya, yang bersifat nonimunologis.

Alergi makanan terkait IgE mempengaruhi sekitar 3% dari populasi dan memiliki efek parah pada kehidupan sehari-hari pasien — manifestasi terjadi tidak hanya pada saluran pencernaan tetapi juga mempengaruhi sistem organ lainnya. Studi kohort kelahiran telah menunjukkan bahwa sensitisasi alergi terhadap alergen makanan berkembang sejak dini. Mekanisme patogenesis meliputi ikatan silang sel mast dan IgE yang terikat basofil dan pelepasan mediator inflamasi segera, serta inflamasi alergi fase akhir dan kronis, yang dihasilkan dari aktivasi sel T, basofil, dan eosinofil. Para peneliti telah mulai mengkarakterisasi fitur molekuler alergen makanan dan telah mengembangkan tes berbasis chip untuk beberapa alergen. Ini telah memberikan informasi tentang reaktivitas silang di antara berbagai sumber alergen makanan, mengidentifikasi alergen makanan penyebab penyakit, dan membantu kami memperkirakan tingkat keparahan dan jenis reaksi alergi pada pasien. Pemahamanan tentang struktur alergen makanan sebagai penyebab penyakit telah memungkinkan para peneliti untuk merekayasa vaksin sintetis dan rekombinan.

Reaksi makanan yang merugikan sering terjadi dan sering dianggap oleh pasien sebagai alergi. Namun, reaksi nonimunologis terhadap makanan lebih umum daripada alergi makanan sejati.

Alergi makanan disebabkan oleh respons imunologis yang abnormal setelah paparan (biasanya tertelan) terhadap makanan. Ada beberapa jenis alergi makanan, masing-masing dengan fitur klinis dan patofisiologis yang berbeda. Alergi makanan secara luas dikategorikan ke dalam proses mediated immunoglobulin E (IgE) atau non-IgE yang dimediasi. Beberapa kelainan, seperti dermatitis atopik atau kelainan gastrointestinal eosinofilik (EGID), memiliki karakteristik dari kedua mekanisme tersebut.

Ada beberapa mekanisme di mana orang mengalami reaksi negatif terhadap makanan yang juga disebut intoleransi makanan. Reaksi ini dapat dianggap beracun atau tidak beracun. Di antara reaksi tidak beracun, yang tidak dimediasi oleh kekebalan tubuh, seperti yang melibatkan enzim cacat (mis., amina vasoaktif) atau reaksi terhadap zat-zat tertentu (misalnya intoleransi laktosa), jauh lebih umum daripada reaksi yang dimediasi kekebalan. Namun demikian, reaksi yang dimediasi kekebalan mempengaruhi jutaan orang, bertanggung jawab atas morbiditas yang signifikan dan biaya perawatan kesehatan, dan dapat menyebabkan reaksi parah yang mengancam jiwa yang menyebabkan kematian. Alergi makanan didefinisikan oleh panel ahli dari Institut Nasional Alergi dan Penyakit Menular sebagai “efek kesehatan yang merugikan yang timbul dari respons imun spesifik yang terjadi secara berulang pada paparan untuk makanan tertentu. ”Respons ini pada dasarnya terdiri dari semua jenis reaksi yang dimediasi kekebalan, termasuk yang disebabkan oleh sistem imun adaptif dan bawaan

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